It is widely considered that the posting of the Ninety-five Theses (on the door of the All Saints Catholic Church, on October 31, 1517) by Martin Luther, a professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, marked the start of the Protestant Reformation, profoundly changing Europe and all Christendom.
Luther challenged the use of indulgences. He stated that the pope could not use the treasury of merit to forgive temporal punishment of sin. His position was that salvation is through he work of Christ on Calvary and not earned through papal indulgences.
The translation of the entire Bible into German was published in a six-part edition in 1534. It was the collaborative effort of several reformers including Johannes Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Caspar Creuziger, Philipp Melanchthon, Matthäus Aurogallus, and Georg Rörer. Luther's goal was to equip every German-speaking Christian with the ability to hear the Word of God, and his completing his translation of the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into the vernacular by 1534 was one of the most significant acts of the Reformation.
Matin Luther was a man of courage and conviction. He will forever be remembered as the monk that sparked the reformation that swept across Europe and the continents beyond for the remainder of the century.